For subjects which are more classification oriented, there are additional strategies worth discussing to help students make meaning of what they read. Disciplinary literacy in the arts makes unique demands on teachers and students, with examples included in Table 2. Are magnified cells and frogs âtextsâ? And finally, consider the physics textbook beginning with the phrase, âOnce upon a time.â It is not that the sentences and phrases used above are technically incorrect; they just do not conform to the communication traditions associated with the corresponding discipline. This includes specifying key language functions that students must be able to carry out in discipline-appropriate ways (e.g., obtaining information, demonstrating understanding, constructing An alternative to avoiding the use of science texts was teaching students how to read and understand them, using some of the same disciplinary literacy strategies experts use. Analyzing models and anti-models of effective writing can motivate students to read sources with a critical eye and to perform writing tasks with more confidence. This same feeling of awkwardness can happen when someone tries to use a strategy that supports comprehension in one discipline but not in another. In T. L. Jetton & J. Historians are especially reluctant to consume things when they do not know where those things came from. While some students may be able to deduce the meaning of this cue, other students may need more direct teaching to comprehend the meanings of arts-based terms and symbols, such as stage tape. 227-266). The despondent chemist tenuously grasped the test tube and lifted it feebly over the dancing blue flame of the Bunsen burner, fluttering the cylinder back and forth like a tiny flag signaling his surrender to the very science he was studying. Texts are typically concept and idea dense, Function words (âthe,â âa,â âofâ) and symbols (+, â ) have specific meaning, Numbers may be uninterpretable without unit labels (meters), Many technical words contain Latin or Greek roots and have specialized meaning, such as âtrigonometryâ, Make meaning from every word, symbol, and their relations, Intensive reading and rereading to analyze details, Get more than just the âgistâ; precision/error free focus, Identify all parts of words and their meaning, Divide attention across multiple representations of content, Switch strategies when reading prose, graphs, equations, Use mathematically-specific text features to make meaning, Construct proofs and deconstruct principles, Numbers may be uninterpretable without unit labels (grams), Many technical words contain Latin or Greek roots that not only reveal meaning but help to enable scientific classifications, Descriptions of procedures and testing of hypotheses, Analysis of procedures/performances, such as lab experiments, Conduct and record observations/lab experiments; critique procedures used by others, Analyze key words and word parts for identification and classification, Use scientific (and sometimes mathematical) text features to make meaning, Texts contain historical events, which vary in concept and idea density, Authorship central to interpretation of texts, Contextual factors are key (who, what, where, and when), along with the authorâs purpose/perspective, Specialized terms such as âoligarchyâ signal classification systems (e.g., forms of government), Culturally specific words have specialized meaning, Information related to timelines and datelines, Analyze details related to the sources of information and why they were documented, Close reading, often across multiple documents/sources and in reference to one another (i.e., corroboration), Analyze specialized words for meaning and at cultural, emotional, and cognitive levels, Analysis of documents (who, what, where, and when) is a primary method used to study texts, Use historical text features to make meaning, Texts from genres such as novels, poetry, plays, and dramas, Contextual factors are key (who, what, where, and when), along with considering the authorâs purpose/perspective, Figurative language (e.g., metaphor, irony) and other abstractions used by authors, In analysis of texts, use of specialized terms such as âdenouementâ, Attend to characteristics of genres and their conventions (plot, setting, characters, conflict), Determine the âgistâ and analysis of details, Adjust speed of reading based on diverse genre and dialect features (poetry and drama vs. prose), Analyze figures of speech in reference to context, Reconstruct story elements when presented nonlinearly, Use of specialized text features to make meaning, Texts include photographs, paintings, sculptures, sheet music, exhibits, and performances, Specialized materials such as canvases, acrylic paints, color wheels, musical instruments, Specialized terms such as âoverture,â âoctave,â âCubism,â âcollage,â âhue,â and âgildâ, Culturally specific words that have specialized meanings from languages other than English, such as âadagioâ and âpirouetteâ, 2/4 and 4/4 designate rhythms, and many symbols ( â¯, â«) have specialized meaning, Greater emphasis on listening, speaking, viewing, and performance aspects of literacy, Deconstruct ideas represented by design elements and principles, such as space, texture, color, shape, movement, rhythm, and balance related to visual arts, music, and dance, Frequent rehearsal and/or practice of artistic expressions based on modeling by peers, teachers, and other experts, Make meaning of words and concepts from languages other than English, Use of technical and specialized text features to make meaning. When content area teachers teach in culturally responsive ways, they can help students better leverage discipline specific knowledge to negotiate a world that privileges some at the expense of others. Alternatively, historians appeared more contextually-focused. Teachers may do this by asking students direct questions, asking students to complete interest inventories, meeting with families, attending cultural events in communities, and seeking out information about cultural traditions through reading, viewing, and traveling. Differences in the density of idea units (sometimes referred to as âlexical densityâ; Shanahan & Shanahan, 2008) can make scientific texts especially challenging for students to read and remain motivated to understand. In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds. Describe why and how they can be explicitly taught in content area classes. What are some of the challenges teachers face when trying to meet the needs of all students in content area classes? Just as in the section of this chapter discussing mathematics and history where ideas of what a text is needed to be broadened, with science, ideas about what a text is need to be extended even further. Teaching Academic and Discipline-Specific Vocabulary. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. This Era of Sociocultural Learning became particularly informative to culturally responsive teaching practices (Gay, 2010; Moje, 2007; Moje & Hinchman, 2004) discussed later in this chapter. that are specific to that particular field. This section of the guide provides helpful writing tips specific to your EMS major. Likewise, thinking about other arts-based texts such as photographs, color wheels, and musical scores can help prompt teachers to explain the meaning of discipline specific text features such as color, space, texture, and movement (Moxley, 2012). The student then remarked, âItâs just written the way adults read itâ¦. Instruction that incorporates components of culture designed to facilitate learning is known as culturally responsive teaching, which also serves as a foundation by which to critique socially unjust power structures in society. Teaching for social justice leads to more socially just outcomes designed to address and correct unjustified power differences in society. Pressley, M. (2000). During this Era of Information Processing, factors such as attention, thinking strategies, and knowledge organization were recognized as important to make meaning of what is read. In spite of certain similarities, the ways that mathematics, history, science, and arts texts are accessed, viewed, read, discussed, debated, critiqued, and written about often require the use of specialized strategies that differ from strategies used to comprehend narrative fiction. Foregrounding the disciplines in secondary literacy teaching and learning: A call for change. As a result of discussions with content area experts, Shanahan and Shanahan (2008) identified strategies that were more discipline specific, to which content area experts reacted more positively. 33-68). This theory cautions that preservice teachers may believe that because they observed so much teaching happen when they were in school that teaching merely involves replicating what they experienced (Lortie, 1975). Happens in classrooms for discussing any topic beyond a single perspective attributes than occurs most. For gifted students linguistic strengths of students into the classroom from reading, listening, talking and. Software development life cycle stage 393-429. doi:10.1177/1086296X11424071 positive results and provide strong for... The sunlight P. 34 ) continue to be essential for interpreting information read in subject. 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